Saturday, 28 September 2013

Science and Technology


The History of Science and Technology

     Science and Technology was not link together in the early stages of human existence. Science based industries came about in the 1800’s using chemical and electrical power equipment. Historically, industrial research labs originated in Germany in the 1870s and in the 1900 there were a number of such labs introduce to the USA.

     But Science can be traced back to prehistoric time when the Mesopotamian were in existence around 4000 BC, their knowledge of science was shown in lists of astronomical observations, chemical substance and disease symptoms, as well  mathematical tables were created on clay tablets.  Evident of science was also discovered in Africa when papyri were found containing information on the treatment of wounds and diseases; furthermore, mathematical calculations were also found inscribe on these writing material. Some of these mathematical units are still being used in today’s society. An important person to the development of science from ancient days until now is Imhotep , according to Dunn “The world's first named architect who built Egypt's first pyramid, is often recognized as the world's first doctor, a priest, scribe, sage, poet, astrologer, and a vizier and chief minister”( about Egyptian pyramids,1996-2013).

     Scientific theories began to rise 600 BC-200 AD when Greek scholar, Thales proposed that natural occurrences must have been brought about by basic reasons that can be justified instead of blaming it on gods and beliefs. Another significant individual was man Pythagoras, a mathematician and philosopher who sought to prove that mathematics is fundamental to all scientific research. Hippocrates, a physician was living during Pythagoras time and he tried to find natural causes for disease instead of supernatural ones, and he did this through rigorous and careful observations. In addition, two scholars, Plato and Aristotle combine the Ionian natural philosophy and Pythagorean mathematical science which lead to great advancement in logic around 400 BC.

     Science took another step forward in the middle ages (between 450-1450 AD) when the Dogon people of West Africa discovered the Sirius star system. Many other bodies of people started to promote science based inventories such as groups in Central and South America who made effective irrigation systems. The Chinese made impressive strides in there mathematical knowledge, and paper and gun powder were being manufactured. The Hindu made their contribution by creating the Hindu system of numerals around 300 BC. Their work was furthered by mathematician Al-kwarizmi, who came up with the number system that we now use today. Although the development of science was not going very fast in this period there were still some important  advancement in technology such the making of clocks, glass, paper, iron making, gun powder  and the compass.

     In the period 1450-1600 AD Europe made significant steps to acquire more knowledge, an important person to this movement was Leonardo da Vinvi. He was an artist, architect, engineer, philosopher and scientist who insist on the need for experiment in order to draw conclusion. In this period they were a number of geographical findings; Prince Henry the navigator travelled around South African and landed in India, and around this time Christopher Columbus reaches the Americas. Shortly after Columbus one of Magellan’s ship travelled around the world and a conclusion was drawn saying that the earth is round. In the year 1543 Copernicus and Tycho Brahe based on research insist that the earth and planets revolved around the sun, a revelation that opposed the ideas of Ptolemy. Also in that same year Vesalius publish a book on the anatomy of the human body leading to the discovery of the blood circulation system.

    After an era forming the basis of science and technology scholars began go more in depth into experiments and draw more logical conclusions. Galileo, in the 1600s AD developed the telescope which was used to provide accurate astronomical observations. Newton, a well-know man combined kepler’s astronomy and Galileo’s terrestrial mechanics brought about the universal law of gravitation in 1687. His laws of dynamics are still being thought today; also, along with Leibniz he invented calculus setting the foundation for our sophisticated mathematical science today. In 1859 Darwin proposed his heliocentric views which many opposed, shortly after Einstein proved that matter was not just made of sub-atomic particles alone but also waves, force fields and even statistical inference. Another major discovery was the DNA by Crick and Watson in 1953.

     One small country in which the development of technology have been fascinating is Jamaica. The Hammock was invented by Tainos in Jamaica and it became popular in of Europe and then other parts of the world. When Chistopher Columbus came to Jamaica there were a number of impressive technology that were already invented such as the canoes, gold mining techniques and a viable agricultural system. Seven (7) years after the steam power was first used in Britain John Stewart, a craftsman invented a steam-driven engine and was install and used on a plantation in St Andrew. ‘Printing began in Jamaica by 1718 and by 1834 over 100 books, 56 pamphlets, 11 magazines, 39 almanacs and 30 newspaper had been published’ (science and technology). Jamaica law about county and parish was establish after Robertson carried out a in depth survey and produce a map of the island in1804. Surprisingly, the parish of Falmouth had pipe water in homes before certain places in New York, and Black River had electricity around 1893 far before most of the US. The telephone was introduced to Jamaica in 1878 and by 2002 the island had one of the best telephone systems in the world. The first iron bridge was made in Pennsylvania in 1801 and within that same year a iron bridge was made in Jamaica. Also, Jamaica had the first rail way service outside of the USA and Europe. The Island scholars work hard in improving technology and science a few of them are; Thomas lecky who develop the Jamaica hope, a breed of cattle that can survive tropical conditions. Professor Manley West and Dr Lockhart develop a treatment for glaucoma. Professor Gerald lalor efforts lead to the opening of a research nuclear reactor at UWI. “In 1997, Dr, Paula Tennant became the first person in the Caribbean to produce a bio-engineered product, a transgenic strain of papaya” (science and technology).

   Science and technology is the framework of human existence and as time passes technologies become more advance and the reliance on machines increase.


No comments:

Post a Comment